The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology
Vol. 75 No: 2
Induction of flavonoids and phenolic acids in apple by UV-B and temperature
JANE E. LANCASTER, PETER F. REAY, JUNE NORRIS and RUTH C. BUTLER
The effect of UV-B irradiation at 10°C and 20°C on the quercetin glycosides procyanidins, chlorogenic acid and anthocyanin levels in the skin of detached fruit of five apple cultivars was investigated. UV-B responsiveness was compared between sides of the fruit that were outwardly facing (exposed) and inwardly facing (shaded) when on the tree. There were no common effects of UV-B irradiation and temperature across all cultivars. UV-B irradiation increased the quercetin glycoside levels in the shaded side of 'Gala', 'Royal Gala' and 'Braeburn' fruit and only at 20°C. UV-B irradiation of the exposed sides of the five cultivars, of either side at 10°C, and of 'Pacific Rose' and 'Aurora' at either 10°C or 20°C had no significant effect on quercetin glycoside levels. There was no effect of UV-B irradiation on procyanidin levels at any combination of treatments. However, levels of chlorogenic acid, although one tenth of those of quercetin glycosides and procyanidins, increased markedly with UV-B irradiation. Both exposed and shaded sides of fruit of all cultivars increased in chlorogenic acid levels at 10°C and 20°C after UV-B irradiation. UV-B irradiation increased anthocyanin levels in exposed and shaded sides of fruit of all cultivars at 20°C, and on 'Braeburn', and 'Aurora' at both 20°C and 10°C. UV-B irradiation at either temperature had no significant effect on either the relative proportions of the glycosides of quercetin (galactoside, rhamnoglucoside, glucoside, xyloside, arabinoside and rhamnoside) or the relative proportions of the procyanidins (Procyanidins B2, B5, epicatechin and catechin). The effect of UV-B irradiation was variable, depending on cultivar, previous light exposure, temperature and class of flavonoids examined.
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